Rather than talk at length about 100 symptoms that can apply to anyone, we
are going to discuss the biochemistry and genetics of estrogen dominance.
Then we will recommend ONE supplement to manage the condition rather than
encourage you to make a five-gallon smoothie of cruciferous vegetables,
garlic, beets, and pickled frog skin.

Progesterone is necessary to balance high estrogen but within the
metabolism of estrogen itself are important factors related to estrogen
balance and estrogen dominance. There are multiple pathways of estrogen
metabolism leading to multiple products. These have typically been
simplified into “good” and “bad” forms of estrogen.

The "Good" Estrogens:

2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1)
2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2)
2-methoxyestrone (2-MeOE1)
4-methoxyestrone (4-MeOE1)

The "Bad" Estrogens

4-hydroxyestrone (4-OHE1)--considered a "bad" estrogen, 4-OHE1 levels
should be low
16-α-hydroxyestrone (16α-OHE1)--an exceptionally potent form of estrogen

There are two major enzymes directing estrogen metabolism. These are CYP1A1
(higher activity is better) and CYP1B1 (lower activity is better).
Polymorphisms in our genes that affect the activity of these enzymes will
affect the balance of estrogen metabolites.

23andMe assesses 34 snps for CYP1A1. Our research indicates these as


23andMe assesses 58 snps for CYP1B1. Our research indicates these as


If CYP1A1 has low activity due to polymorphisms and/or CYP1B1 has enhanced
activity due to polymorphisms, then estrogen dominance is likely.
Fortunately, this can be mitigated by various supplements such as
diindolylmethane (DIM). DIM activates both enzymes, but CYP1A1 to a much
greater extent, restoring a healthy estrogen balance.

Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone
metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast


Some recent evidence on why you want this balance in check:

The immunomodulatory effects of estrogens: clinical relevance in
immune-mediated rheumatic diseases:


Estrogen metabolism and autoimmunity: